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Although smoking is an established causal factor for upper aero digestive tract cancer (UADTC), most of the evidence originates from the West. Thus, we analysed data from 455,409 subjects in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Over a median of around six years follow-up, 371 deaths from UADTC were observed. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for current smokers, compared with those who had never smoked, was 2.36 (1.76 - 3.16), adjusted for age and alcohol drinking. Tobacco control policies are urgently required in Asia to prevent millions of deaths from UADTC that smoking will otherwise cause.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Environ Res Public Health

Publication Date





1358 - 1370


Adult Aged Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects/epidemiology Australia/epidemiology Cohort Studies Far East/epidemiology Female Head and Neck Neoplasms/etiology/*mortality Humans Male Middle Aged Risk Assessment Smoking/adverse effects/*epidemiology