Inositol phosphoglycans and signal transduction systems in pregnancy in preeclampsia and diabetes: evidence for a significant regulatory role in preeclampsia at placental and systemic levels.
Kunjara S., Greenbaum AL., Wang DY., Caro HN., McLean P., Redman CW., Rademacher TW.
Measurements have been made of the urinary content of inositol phosphoglycans IPG P-type and IPG A-type, putative insulin second messengers, in preeclampsia, in type I insulin-treated diabetic pregnant women and their matched control subjects, and nonpregnant women of child-bearing age. The content of IPG P-type and IPG A-type was also measured in the placenta from preeclamptic patients and from normal pregnancies. Pregnancy was associated with an increase, approximately twofold, in urinary output of IPG-P-type relative to nonpregnant controls (P<0.01). The 24-h output of IPG P-type in urine in preeclamptic women was significantly higher (2- to 3-fold) than in pregnant control subjects matched for age, parity, and stage of gestation (P<0.02). In contrast, insulin-dependent diabetic pregnant women did not show any significant change in urinary output of IPG P-type or IPG A-type relative to pregnant control subjects. Evidence for a possible relationship and correlation between the urinary excretion of IPG P-type and markers of preeclampsia, including proteinuria (r = 0.720, P<0.01), plasma aspartate transaminase (r = 0.658, P<0.05), and platelet counts (r = 0.613, P<0.05) is presented. A high yield of IPG P-type was extracted from human placenta, in preeclampsia some 3-fold higher (P = 0.03) than the normal value, whereas no IPG A-type (with lipogenic-stimulating activity) was found. Low concentrations of placental IPG A-type were detected relative to IPG P-type using assay systems dependent upon the effect of this mediator on cAMP-dependent protein kinase or on a proliferation assay using thymidine incorporation into DNA of EGFR T17 fibroblasts. It is postulated that the high urinary excretion IPG P-type in preeclampsia reflects high placental levels and relates to the accumulation of glycogen in the placenta. The paracrine effects of placental IPG P-type (stimulation off other endocrine glands and/or endothelial cells) could contribute to the pathogenesis of the maternal syndrome. A possible theoretical link between elevated placental IPG P-type and apoptosis is proposed.