High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Thailand
Perkovic V., Cass A., Patel AA., Suriyawongpaisal P., Barzi F., Chadban S., Macmahon S., Neal B.
We describe the prevalence of stage III and IV chronic kidney disease in Thailand from a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years and above using a stratified, multistage, cluster-sampling method. Population estimates were calculated by applying sampling weights from the 2000 Thai census. Glomerular filtration rates were estimated from serum creatinine using the Cockroft-Gault and the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulae. The prevalence of stage III disease among individuals aged 35 years and above was estimated to be about 20% using the Cockroft-Gault formula and about 13% from the MDRD formula. Stage IV disease was present in about 0.9 and 0.6% of this population using the respective formulae. The highest prevalence rates were observed in less well-developed rural areas and the lowest in developed urban areas. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease was significantly higher than that reported in individuals over 40 years old from the United States for both stage III and IV disease and higher than the reported incidence in Taiwan and Australia. This high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Thailand has obvious implications for the health of its citizens and for the allocation of health-care resources.