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BACKGROUND: Age-standardised death rates from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) have been declining in most developed countries. However, the magnitude of such reductions and how they impact on death from heart failure are less certain. We sought to assess and compare temporal trends in mortality from heart failure, AMI and non-AMI IHD over a 30-year period in England. METHODS: We analysed death registration data for multiple-cause-coded mortality for all deaths in people aged 35 years and over in England from 1995 to 2010, population 52 million, and in a regional population (Oxford region) from 1981 to 2010, population 2.5 million, for which data on all causes of death were available. RESULTS: Considering all ages and both sexes combined, during the 30-year observation period, age-standardised and sex-standardised mortality rates based on all certified causes of death declined by 60% for heart failure, 80% for AMI and 46% for non-AMI IHD. These longer term trends observed in the Oxford region were consistent with those for the whole of England from 1995 to 2010, with no evidence of a plateau in recent years. Although proportional reductions in rates differed by age and sex, even in those aged 85 years or more, there were substantial reductions in mortality rates in the all-England data set (50%, 66% and 20% for heart failure, AMI and non-AMI IHD, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows large and sustained reductions in age-specific and sex-specific and standardised death rates from heart failure, as well as from AMI and non-AMI IHD, over a 30-year period in England.

Original publication




Journal article


J Epidemiol Community Health

Publication Date





1000 - 1005


CHD/CORONORARY HEART, Cardiovascular disease, EPIDEMIOLOGY, Age Distribution, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cause of Death, Death Certificates, England, Female, Heart Failure, Humans, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Myocardial Infarction, Myocardial Ischemia, Sex Distribution