Recent Advances in Boar Sperm Cryopreservation: State of the Art and Current Perspectives.
While sperm cryopreservation is the best technology to store boar semen for long-term periods, only 1% of all artificial inseminations (AI) conducted worldwide are made using frozen-thawed boar sperm. With the emergence of long-term extenders for liquid storage, the use of cryopreserved sperm in routine AI is less required. However, banks of boar semen contain cryopreserved sperm and planning inseminations in AI centres may benefit from the use of frozen-thawed semen. Therefore, there is an interest in the use of this technology to preserve boar sperm. In this regard, although the first attempts to cryopreserve boar semen date back to the seventies and this technology is still considered as optimal, some relevant improvements have been made in the last decade. After giving a general picture about boar sperm cryodamage, the present review seeks to shed light on these recent cryopreservation advances. These contributions regard to protein markers for predicting ejaculate freezability, sperm selection prior to start cryopreservation procedures, additives to freezing and thawing extenders, relevance of the AI-technique and insemination-to-ovulation interval. In conclusion, most of these progresses have allowed counteracting better boar sperm cryodamage and are thus considered as forward steps for this storage method. It is also worth noting that, despite being lower than fresh/extended semen, reproductive performance outcomes following AI with frozen-thawed boar sperm are currently acceptable.