Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested sex differences in the mortality rate associated with type 1 diabetes. We did a meta-analysis to provide reliable estimates of any sex differences in the effect of type 1 diabetes on risk of all-cause mortality and cause-specific outcomes. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for studies published between Jan 1, 1966, and Nov 26, 2014. Selected studies reported sex-specific estimates of the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) or hazard ratios associated with type 1 diabetes, either for all-cause mortality or cause-specific outcomes. We used random effects meta-analyses with inverse variance weighting to obtain sex-specific SMRs and their pooled ratio (women to men) for all-cause mortality, for mortality from cardiovascular disease, renal disease, cancer, the combined outcome of accident and suicide, and from incident coronary heart disease and stroke associated with type 1 diabetes. FINDINGS: Data from 26 studies including 214 114 individuals and 15 273 events were included. The pooled women-to-men ratio of the SMR for all-cause mortality was 1·37 (95% CI 1·21-1·56), for incident stroke 1·37 (1·03-1·81), for fatal renal disease 1·44 (1·02-2·05), and for fatal cardiovascular diseases 1·86 (1·62-2·15). For incident coronary heart disease the sex difference was more extreme; the pooled women-to-men ratio of the SMR was 2·54 (95% CI 1·80-3·60). No evidence suggested a sex difference for mortality associated with type 1 diabetes from cancer, or accident and suicide. INTERPRETATION: Women with type 1 diabetes have a roughly 40% greater excess risk of all-cause mortality, and twice the excess risk of fatal and nonfatal vascular events, compared with men with type 1 diabetes. FUNDING: None.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70248-7

Type

Journal article

Journal

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol

Publication Date

03/2015

Volume

3

Pages

198 - 206

Keywords

Analysis of Variance, Diabetes Complications, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Diabetic Angiopathies, Female, History, 20th Century, History, 21st Century, Humans, Male, Sex Characteristics