A meta-analysis of the association of estimated GFR, albuminuria, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension with acute kidney injury
James MT., Grams ME., Woodward M., Elley CR., Green JA., Wheeler DC., De Jong P., Gansevoort RT., Levey AS., Warnock DG., Sarnak MJ.
© 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Background Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI). Whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) remain risk factors for AKI in the presence and absence of these conditions is uncertain. Study Design Meta-analysis of cohort studies. Setting & Population 8 general-population (1,285,045 participants) and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD; 79,519 participants) cohorts. Selection Criteria for Studies Cohorts participating in the CKD Prognosis Consortium. Predictors Diabetes and hypertension status, eGFR by the 2009 CKD Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation, urine ACR, and interactions. Outcome Hospitalization with AKI, using Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs of AKI and random-effects meta-analysis to pool results. Results During a mean follow-up of 4 years, there were 16,480 episodes of AKI in the general-population and 2,087 episodes in the CKD cohorts. Low eGFRs and high ACRs were associated with higher risks of AKI in individuals with or without diabetes and with or without hypertension. When compared to a common reference of eGFR of 80 mL/min/1.73 m < sup > 2 < /sup > in nondiabetic patients, HRs for AKI were generally higher in diabetic patients at any level of eGFR. The same was true for diabetic patients at all levels of ACR compared with nondiabetic patients. The risk gradient for AKI with lower eGFRs was greater in those without diabetes than with diabetes, but similar with higher ACRs in those without versus with diabetes. Those with hypertension had a higher risk of AKI at eGFRs > 60 mL/min/1.73 m < sup > 2 < /sup > than those without hypertension. However, risk gradients for AKI with both lower eGFRs and higher ACRs were greater for those without than with hypertension. Limitations AKI identified by diagnostic code. Conclusions Lower eGFRs and higher ACRs are associated with higher risks of AKI among individuals with or without either diabetes or hypertension.