Vitamin D insufficiency in the first 6 months of infancy and challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy at 1 year of age: a case-cohort study.
Molloy J., Koplin JJ., Allen KJ., Tang ML., Collier F., Carlin JB., Saffery R., Burgner D., Ranganathan S., Dwyer T., Ward AC., Moreno-Betancur M., Clarke M., Ponsonby AL., Vuillermin P., BIS investigator group None.
BACKGROUND: Ecological evidence suggests vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) due to lower ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure may be a risk factor for IgE-mediated food allergy. However there are no studies relating directly measured VDI during early infancy to subsequent challenge-proven food allergy. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between VDI during infancy and challenge-proven food allergy at 1 year. METHODS: In a birth cohort (n=1074), we used a case-cohort design to compare 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D3 (25(OH)D3 ) levels among infants with food allergy versus a random subcohort (n=274). The primary exposures were VDI (25(OH)D3 <50 nmol/L) at birth and 6 months of age. Ambient UVR and time in the sun were combined to estimate UVR exposure dose. IgE-mediated food allergy status at 1 year was determined by formal challenge. Binomial regression was used to examine associations between VDI, UVR exposure dose and food allergy, and investigate potential confounding. RESULTS: Within the random subcohort VDI was present in 45% (105/233) of newborns and 24% (55/227) of infants at 6 months. Food allergy prevalence at 1 year was 7.7% (61/786) and 6.5% (53/808) were egg allergic. There was no evidence of an association between VDI at either birth (aRR 1.25, 95% CI 0.70-2.22) or 6 months (aRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.41-2.14) and food allergy at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that VDI during the first 6 months of infancy is a risk factor for food allergy at 1 year of age. These findings primarily relate to egg allergy and larger studies are required. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.